Millets - Sorghum, Pearl millet, Finger millet, Small millets (Barnyard, Common, Kodo,Little, Foxtail). All millets, Maize & Barley are known as Coarse cereals

Barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea L.)

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Common name: Sawan

Vernacular Names: Barnyard millet (English), Madira, Sawa, Kudraivali and oodalu.

Family: Gramineae

Introduction: Barnyard millet is another food crop domesticated in India and grown for both grain and fodder purposes. It is quite popular in hills especially the Himalayas and important content of hill and tribal agriculture. It is also grown on a lesser scale in Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

Plant habit: Barnyard millet is an tall erect up to 50-95 cm in height, but the stem as well as leaves are green in colour. Its leaves are flat, glabrous or slightly hairy without ligule. The grain is caryopsis and white or yellow in colour.

Seed rate:  8-10 kg/ha (line sowing)

                   12-15 kg/ha (broadcasting)

Seed treatment: Seed treated with Ceresan @ 3 g/kg of seed. 

Sowing Time: Kharif- June to July

                        Rabi- September to October

Method of Sowing: Broadcasting and line sowing.

Spacing: Row to row 25 cm, plant to plant 10 cm and depth 3-4 cm.

Manures and fertilisers:  

Manures- 5-10 t/ha FYM could be applied about a month before sowing.

Fertilisers- 40 kg nitrogen, 20 kg P2O5 and 20 kg K2O per hectare.


Following are the important varieties of the crop:

VL-Madira-181, VL-Madira-172, Pratap sanwa-1, kancahn, VLM-172 and VL-Madira-2007.

Water management: Generally barnyard millet does not require any irrigation. However, if dry spell prevails for a longer period, then one irrigation at 25-30 DAS and second irrigation at panicle initiation stage 45-50 (DAS).

Important weeds: Among grassy  weeds, Echinochloa colonum, Enhinochloa crusgulli (sawan), Dactyloctenium aegypticum (makra), Elusine indica (kodo), Setaria glauca (banra), Cynodon dactylon (doob), Phragmites karka (narkul), Cyperus rotundus (motha), Sorghum  halepanse (banchari) are common. The broad-leaved weeds are Celosia argentia  (chilimil), Commelina benghalensis (kankoua), Phylanthus niruri (hulhul), Solanum nigrum (makoi) and Amaranthus viridis (chaulai).

Weed Control: Post-emergence application of 2, 4-D sodium salt (80%) @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha at 20-25 DAS. Isoproturon @ 1.0 kg a.i. /ha as pre-emergence spray is also effective in weeds control.

Diseases and its control measure:

Downy mildew- Spray of 0.2% solution of Mancozeb 75 WP.

Smut - Seed treated with thiram or ceresan @ 2.5 g/kg of seed and soaking seeds in hot water at 55 oC for 7-12 minutes.

Rust- Spray of Mancozeb (75 WP) @ 2 kg/ha.

Insect-pests management:

Stem borer- Apply Phorate @15 kg/ha (10% granules) in the soil at the time of field preparation.

Termites- Using Methyl parathion (2%) dust @ 20-25 kg/ha before sowing.

Harvesting: The crop should be harvested when it is ripe. It is cut from the ground level with the help of sickles and stacked in the field for about a week before threshing is done by trampling under the feet of bullocks.

Yield: Grain-12-15 qtl/ha, Straw-20-25 qtl/ha.

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Last Updated On:Monday 01 May 2017
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