Millets - Sorghum, Pearl millet, Finger millet, Small millets (Barnyard, Common, Kodo,Little, Foxtail). All millets, Maize & Barley are known as Coarse cereals

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

Image result for barleyImage result for barley

Common name: Jau

Family: Gramineae

Introduction: In India, barley is an important cereal crop in winter after wheat in both area and production. Due to its very hardy nature, barley is successfully cultivated in adverse agro- environment like drought, salinity, alkalinity etc. The most important uses of barley in India are as grain feed to live-stock and poultry, as malt for manufacture of beer and liquors.

Climate and soil: Barley requires cools weather during early growth and warm and dry weather at maturity. An annual average rain fall of 40-50 cm will result in increased yield. Thus a light period of 10-12 hr during vegetative growth and 12-14 during reproductive growth would be ideal. It performs well on properly drained loamy soils having a pH range of 7-8.

Varieties:

Following are the important varieties of the crop:

BH-959, BG-105, Clipper, Dolma, K-18, Amber, Azad, DWRUB-52, RD-2668, PL-75, Ratna, RD-117 and DL-36.

Land Preparation: Two to three ploughing with cultivator followed by planking after every ploughing. However, in raifed area ploughing and harrowing should be done in the evening time and furrows should be kept open whole night to absorb moisture from dew.

Sowing: The method of sowing of barley is broadcasting and line sowing. For normal sown irrigated crop a spacing of 22.5 centimetre between row and 5-7 cm between plant is recommended. Sowing is done at the depth of 4-5 centimetre.

Sowing Time: Barley gives best results when sown between October 15 and  November 15

Seed rate: In irrigated areas for normal sowing 80-90 kg/ha is sufficient while in late sown condition seed rate should be increased to 100-120 kg/ha.

Seed treatment: Seed should be treated with 1:1 mixture of thiram + bavistin or vitavax @ 2.5 g/ kg of seed.

Manures and fertilisers:  Manures- 10-15 t/ha FYM could be applied about a month before sowing. Fertilisers- Under irrigated condition: 60-80 kg nitrogen, 50 kg P2O5 and 50 kg K2O per hectare. Under rainfed condition: 40-60 kg nitrogen, 30 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O per hectare

Irrigation: It needs two to three irrigation gives good yield. Three critical growth stages for irrigation, viz. active tillering stage (30-35 DAS), flag-leaf stage (60-65 DAS) and milk stage (80-85 DAS). On highly saline and sodic soils, frequent light irrigation gives better results than heavy irrigations.

Weed Control: The initial fast growth of barley gives it upper hand in competing with weeds and under ideal conditions of growth it almost smothers all the weeds and survive from completion. The major weed are Wild oat (Avena fatua), Bathua (Chenopodium album) Krishna neel (Anagallis arvensis),Kateli (Cirsium arvense),Senji (Melilotus alba and Melilotus indica) and Canary grass (Phalaris minor). Post-emergence application of 2,4-D sodium salt (80%) @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha at 35-40 DAS. For control of Phalaris minor and Avena fatua spray Isoproturon (75WP) @1.0 kg a.i./ha.

Diseases:

Molya (Heterodera avanae): Molya disease affected plants occurs in patches, and are stunted and yellowish. Tillering is reduced.

Control: 2-3 deep ploughings during summer and grow resistant varieties namely RD-2035 and Karan-16. Fumigation with methyl bromide or chloropricin, ethyi dibromide etc. also kill the nematode present in the soil.

Rust: The yellow is identified by Small, yellow, elliptical pustules on leaves, forming stripes which later turn black; sometimes the pustules appear on the leaf sheaths and glumes.

Control: - Spray the crop with Zineb @1.70 kg per hectare at fortnightly intervals , seed treatment with Oxycarboxin (0.25%) for seedling infection;    

Powdery mildew- White to dark powdery masses appear on all aerial parts of the plant.

Control: Three spray of Karathane (0.2%) at intervals of 15 days.

Loose smut: Internally seed borne mycelium gets activated with the germination of the seed. Smutted heads, grains replaced by a black powdery mass of spores, finally only the naked rachis remaining behind.

Control: Solar-heat or hot-water treatment of seed, grow resistant varieties, rogue out the smutted plants and dry seed treatment with Carboxin(0.25)%.                                   

Insect-pests management:                                                                                            

Shoot fly: Maggots attack seedlings and kill the central shoots, causing dead-hearts.

Control: Apply Phorate (10%) or Disulfoton (5%) to the soil at the time of sowing, spray seedlings with 0.03% Dimethoate, Phosphamidon or Methyl-demeton.

Termites: Mix thoroughly 5% Aldrin or Chlordane dust with the soil just at the time of sowing.

Stem borer: In the initial stage, pull out and destroy dead-hearts; dust 5% BHC or spray 0.05% Endosulfan

Harvesting Time: Barley is ready for harvest once the plants turns yellow and dry up.The grain become hard, moisture content drops to around 18-20% and suitable time for harvesting is  March to April.

Yield: Grain-30-35 qtl/ha, Straw-40-45 qtl/ha.


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Last Updated On:Monday 01 May 2017
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